PART IV: THE MOON AND THE RACIAL EQUALITY MOVEMENT
GERMANS LAND ON MOON!
BERLIN, AUG 13- The Imperial Rocket Force has announced that Rudolph Nollert, Franz Jager, and Josef Reichmann have landed on the moon. 2 days ago, the three German Cosmonauts launched fron Peenemünde on an A-16 rocket, the latest in rocket techonology developed by the team of Werner von Braun. The launch was broadcast live in the German Empire via KDF, and today the whole nation was tuned in as Cosmonaut Nollert stepped out of the Lunar Lander and proclaimed, “For me, this is just a small step, but for mankind, it is a giant leap forward.”
The video sent back from the Lunar team has been replaying throughout the German Empire, and August 13 has been delcared a public holiday. Shortly after Nollert and the other explorers exited the Lander, the team placed the Imperial German flag on the surface of the Moon, saying, “In the name of the Kaiser and the German people, we claim the Moon not only for Germans, but for all mankind.”
President Kennedy stated this afternoon that “Congragulations are indeed in order for these brave space explorers, and to the German people as well, for they have surely accomplished a mighty feet.” The president went on to say that he hoped that America would soon follow the Reich to the surface of the moon.
-“Germans Land on Moon!”, The New York Times, August 13, 1963.
The “New Orleans Incident” was just the tip of the iceberg that started the Racial Equality Movement in the United States. There had been other incidents of across the south, where the whites attempted to keep those of color from all sorts of public services and priviledges. What happened in New Orleans just made it a national issue.
After the Clarkson’s case becaem national news, other incidents of racial injustice were brought to light. Men who had served in the Pacific and in Cuba demanded they be treated with the same respect as their white brothers-in-arms. In April of 1963, the “sit-in” movement started in Charleston, South Carolina, with African Americans going into diners and lunch counters and refusing to leave until served.
Then, in September of that year, Gloria March of Atlanta refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus, and was arrested. There was a great outcry from the black citizens of Atlanta, and very quickly the community and especially the church leaders organized. The Reverand Maritn Luther King, Jr. and other ministers called for a peaceful boycott of the Atlanta bus system. This 8 month long boycott ended in 1964, when the city of Atlanta announced the end of segregated busses.
In 1966, Marcus Fields sued the Tulsa Public School System when they refused to allow his son to attend the city’s all-white High School. This case went all the way to the Supreme Court, and in 1967 the Court Ruled on the Fields vs. Tulsa case, stating that “separate but equal” policies practiced all over the country were unconstitutional, and called for action and legislation from the President and Congress. At the time, President Rockefeller refused to act on a national level, but stated that “the states should act accordingly, and repeal these unconstitutional measures.”
-Macon, Dr. Allen. Equality and America. Atlanta: Southeast Dixie Press, 1998.
STARS AND STRIPS ON THE MOON!
CAPE CANAVRIL, JUNE 9- America has made it to the moon! Today, Cosmonauts Allen Shepard, Neil Armstrong, and “Buzz” Aldrin stepped out onto the surface of the Moon, not far from where their German counterparts landed five years ago. They planted the Stars & Stripes just over half a mile from where the German Flag still stands. President Rockefeller stated that “this is indeed a proud day for the American people, and for mankind. For today we prooved that the people of earth can go back to the moon anytime we want.”
The Imperial Rocket Force of Germany congratulated the American Space Exploration Agency (formerly the American Rocket Agency) for their shining achievment, and “welcomed them to the Lunar club.” The Germans still lead the Untied States in the “space race”, after placing in orbit two manned space stations, and 4 trips to the moon since the first landing in 1963. Furthermore, the IRF is talking seriouslty of attempting a mission to Mars before 1975.
-“Stars and Strips on the Moon,” The New York Times, June 9, 1968.
ROCKEFELLER PROMISES GREATER EQUALITY IF RE-ELECTED
WASHINGTON, AUG 9- Republican President Nelson Rockefeller told supporters at a campaign banquet in the capital that if he were reelected, he would seek greater legal equality for “all Americans”. The Democrats have been hounding President Rockefeller on what they call a “mishandling” of the Racial Equality issue. Democratic Candidate Hubert Humphry has declared that if he were elected, “every American, regardless of Race, would be garunteed equality before the law,” and that he would do all with in his power to bring and end to segregation. The Democrats are very divided on this issue, and Humphrey’s nomination was very close.
-“Rockefeller Promises Greater Equality if Re-Elected,” The New York Times, August 9, 1968.
WASHINGTON, NOV 5- President Nelson Rockefeller won his reelection bid, narrowly beating Democratic candidate Hubert Humphry, 51% to 49%. To a crowd of supporters gathered in Washington, President Rockefeller declared, “America, you have chosen to continue the last four years of prosperty and growth! America will continue to advance in science. We will catch up to the Germans in space! And I have not forgotten the cries of people who cry out for equality. America was founded as a land of freedom, and freedom must be given to ALL Americans!”
While the President states he will begin to enforce the Supreme Court decision from 1966 in the the Fields v. Tulsa Board of Education case that ruled that “separate-but-equal” practices were unconstitutional, he says he does not support federal level legislation, instead supporting a state-by-state option.
-“Rockefeller Wins!” The New York Times, November 6, 1968.
DAIMLER-LUFT GMBH TESTS PASSENGER JET-AIRLINER
STUTTGART, JAN 9- Officials from the Daimler-Benz sub-group Daimler-Luft have announced that they have successfully test flown their DF-010, a 70 passenger capacity jet-powered airliner. The craft took off from Stuttgart yesterday and landed safely in Frankfurt 50 minutes later, before returning to Stuttgart yesterday evening.
Officials from Daimler-Luft said that they will be doing more flight tests, including a flight to both London and to Petrograd. The hope is that by 1970, they will be able to begin mass production of the DF-010. Officials from Lufthansa have stated that they will purchase several of the craft. Adolf Reichmann, chairman of Lufthansa, stated that the DF-010 represents a new age in civilian aviation. “No longer will the airship be the only way to travel long distances quickly. With the advances in military-grade jet-propulsion that has been made available to civilian developers, it is conceivable that jet-airliners capable of carrying several hundred people could be in the air by the early 1980s, and Lufthansa plans to be on the cutting edge of this exciting new development.”
Fredrich Eckener, grandson of the legendary Hugo Eckener and newly appointed head of Zeppelin-Goodyear International, stated, “I do not believe that airship use will be greatly hindered by this new development. If anything, these new civilian jet aircraft will fill in the gaps in airtravel that are not econmically viable to be done by airship, providing airtravel to more people and places.”
-“Daimler-Luft Gmbh Tests Passenger Jet-Airliner,” Berliner Morgenpost, January 10, 1969.
On February 1, 1969, Presidnet Rockefeller signed an executive order stating that all states needed to abide by the 1966 ruling of the Supreme Court in the Fields v. Tulsa case, and that within 10 years, all states needed to repeal pro-segregation legislation and to affirm racial equality. Rockefeller did not want to try the federal legislation route favored by Democrats because he believed that each state’s issues were different, and needed to be handled on a case by case basis.
The state of Washington was the first to do abide by this order, passing the Washington State Equality Act in June of 1969. California did the same in July, followed by Oregon, Idaho and Minnesotta in August, North Dakota, Montanna, Alaska, Illinois and Michigan in Septmeber, and Maine in November. In 1970, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Hawaii and Ohio passed racial equality laws. In 1971, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Indiana and New Hampshire joined the list. And in the election year of 1972, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, South Dakota, Utah, Wisconsin, New York, New Jersey, Deleware, and Florida all passed racial equality laws.
For all the good this had done, the primary areas where African Americans suffered from segregation had yet to enact any legislation, save for Florida. And in the south, only the states of Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, and Maryland were even considering bills when the 1972 election came in November.
The Democrats again nominated Herbert Humphry, who decried President Rockefeller’s plan for racial equality as “totally useless and ineffective.” In two televised debates, Humphry repeatedly slammed Rockefeller’s handling of the demand for racial equality, and Rockefeller was left stammering for a come back. In the end, Rockefeller lost his bid at a third term, Humphry winning 54% to 46%.
-Macon, Dr. Allen. Equality and America. Atlanta: Southeast Dixie Press, 1998.
HUMPHREY: President Rockefeller, how can you sit there and tell the American people that your plan for the end of segregation has made great leaps and bound?
ROCKEFELLER: It’s simple, Mr. Humphry. 35 of the 50 states have passed racial equality laws, and they still have 6 years to comply.
HUMPHREY: You toss out these numbers, yet you fail to point out that of the states in the South, the only region where segregation and racial inequality is really an issue, only Florida has passed any legislation confirming racial equality. That’s ONE state, Mr. Presidnet. For all these other states, it’s as important as a land-locked state passing regulations concearning ocean-going ships!
ROCKEFELLER: Now that’s..
HUMPHREY: And furhter more, the states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas are all vowing to ignore your executive order. Alabama has gone so far as to pass amendments to their state consititution making segregation a part of their state government! If anything, that’s a step backward, not forward!
ROCKEFELLER: Well that situation is a tense one and must be dealt with carefully, and my administration is still working…
HUMPHREY: Your administration doesn’t have a clue how to handle these renegade states, or to force the rest of the south to enact racial equality by law. You have failed, Mr. President. You are unable to bring about the racial equality that this country needs, equality that you promised to give!
-Televised Presidential debate between President Nelson Rockefeller and then-Presidential candidate Herbert Humphrey, broadcast on NBC, September 19, 1972; Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.
CONGRESS PASSES RACIAL EQUALITY ACT
WASHINGTON, OCT 15- The House of Representatives has passed the President’s Racial Equaltiy Act, which was approved last week in the Senate with a vote of 61-39. Today’s vote was much narrower, with 52% of the vote in favor, 48% against. Presidnet Humphrey is expected to sign the bill into law within the next few days, following through on his promise ot enact federal-leval racial equality legislation before the mid-term elections.
The Racial Equality Act of 1973 states that the practice of segregation will not be tollerated in this country, and that all states with such laws are to repeal them within one year of the passage of the new federal law. Furthermore, the Act places punative fines on all businesses that discriminate based on race, and also places fines on state and municple governments that continue to enforece segregation after January 1, 1975. Schools are required to integrate by the beginning of the 1976-1977 school year or face fines as well.
The clock is now ticking on the remaining 12 states that have yet to do away with segregation. Currenty, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee have yet to comply with the 1969 executive order demanding compliance with the 1966 Supreme Court ruling on the Fields v. Tulsa case.
The States of Arkansas, Alabama, and Mississippi are still vowing to fight the federal legislation, stating that they belive it to be unconstitutional and violating the rights of the individual states.
-“Congress Passes Racial Equality Act,” The New York Times, October 16, 1973.
DISASTER FOR IRF
BERLIN, MAY 3- Tragedy has struck at the IRF launch site at Peenemünde, Germany, where the first A-19 rocket, designed with travel to Mars in mind, exploded on the launch pad. The explosion was destructive and forcefull, and so far 12 casualties have been confimred by Imperial authorities.
Dr. von Braun, head of the German space program, stated that this was a serious set back to Germany’s plans for putting a man on the moon by 1980. It is expected that the repairs to to the launch facility will take months, and will probably prevent Germany from launching any space craft for the rest of the year, which will also hamper plans of putting up a fourth space station in orbit, or the planned construction of a permanent base on the surface of the Moon.